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Főmenü » Könyvtáraink » Nagytétényi út 283.

History of the library

2019-09-06 15:19:41

A brief overview of the story of the library.

The building of the library was a Jewish house of prayer for 2 centuries; it was the religious and social center of the Jewish communities living in Tétény and nearby. Local Jewish people lived strongly interwoven with other inhabitants of Tétény.

In the first half of the 18th century seigniors György Száraz and József Rudnyánszky (later on) allowed Jewish people to settle down in the village populated by mostly German Catholics after the Turkish era. According to the Jewish census in 1737 there were three Jewish families including 12 people and in 1746 8 Jewish families with 31 people. A few of them probably came from the scattered and expelled Jews of Buda, due to the edict of Maria Theresa on the 8th of September 1746.

According to the tax registry they lived in socage, the householders worked as traders or dealed with leasing or distillery. Their community was expanded with immigrants from Moravia as well. The Jewish house of prayer is also from this period, the Száraz-Rudnyánszky family offered a farm building for this purpose.

According to a catholic religious source it was declared in 1759 that the local community had: „German, slav, the first are more, and all of them live together with the Jewish, who have a rabbi and a synagog.” The Jewish register was administered since 1760. In the existing, however closed Jewish cemetery the earliest date on the tomb is 1750.

In the middle of the 19th century the Jewish population increased to 326 people. After the Jewish religious divorcement (1868-1871) the Jewish community in Tétény insisted to the traditional liturgy, strictly holding their traditions and belonged to the orthodox community and became the most important center in the region. Jews who were born in Albertfalva, Törökbálint and Budafok were registered here and Tétény’s cemetery was used by Batta, Tárnok, Érd, Sóskút, Etyek és Tököl. At this time the community had Chevra Kadisa (funeral and social association) and Women’s Association. Their capitation was the highest in 1880, 498 Jewish people lived in Nagy-Tétény at this time which was 22% of the whole population. In this period they rebuilded the house of prayer: a new double door was created, a gallery was added for the women. Their rabbi was Salamon Tauber until 1885, who was followed by Rezső Ungár until 1934. After this period the rabbis were invited from Budapest for important feasts, and the local clerk and catechist was László Hochstätter who fulfilled other religious duties as well.

In the beginning of the 20th century Jewish people in Nagytétény confessed themselves Hungarian in spite of the fact that they were orthodox Jews and partly spoke German language. In most of the life of their community they were in peace and in good collaboration with the inhabitants of other religion and nationality. Their respectable citizens became determining persons of the local social and economic life. Their men took part in World War I and in 1934 the representatives of the catholic, the calvinistic and the Jewish churches initiated the memorial of the fallen soldiers together.

Even between the two World Wars there are many recalls about friendships and mixed marriages. It was known that the catholic priest and the rabbi were good friends. The almost 200 year-old house of prayer had to be renewed inside and outside, too, in the middle of the 1930s. The new building was inaugurated within a ceremonial event on the 20th of August in 1936. The copf style furnishing was exchanged; however, the main characteristics were kept. The bima stayed in the middle as a pulpit for reading the Tora, the hammered grid and canopy were made probably in the first decade of 19th century. Opposite the entrance we see the dominating cupboard of the Tora and the pillars surrounding it.

The consecutive Jewish laws started in 1938 and further harsh prohibitive regulations made the living conditions of local Israelites even more difficult. From the beginning of 1941 many of the local Jewish men had to go to labour service, many of them died. From the 5th of April 1944 all Jewish people here were also obligated to wear the yellow star. Due to the notarized statements filled out by the local parish preast some of them escaped from the impending danger, however, the majority of almost 150 Jewish local persons was forced to go to the getto in Budafok, Halom street. After that they were suffering in the brickyard of Budakalász, which was the limbo of Auschwitz.

From Tétény only five families returned, each of whom planted one tree in the court before the house of prayer. The Jewish community life ceased. The cemetery stayed in high grass. The house of prayer also became parentless. It’s status, however, was provided by declaring it as a scheduled monument, the inside equipment was carried away, the destiny is unknown. The building was used as a storage. In the last years local people gave tangible signs to honor the Jewish inheritage. Local patriots and volunteers of Jewish organizations together cleaned up the cemetery and in front of the Szentháromság street 13. a stone was placed to remind the local victims of the holocaust. Budafok-Tétény Municipality engaged himself to save the synagog’s building and use it for community purpose. As part of the local rehabilitation the contemporary house of prayer was renewed, enlarged and since 2013 it has been functioning as a public library.

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